Trump met Tuesday with a key voice advocating for withdrawal, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Scott Pruitt.
It was signed by 196 countries that set themselves goals to minimize carbon emissions and mitigate the effects of climate change.
He said that the agreement was "the biggest step forward we've taken in many, many years" and noted that Trump is going against the advice of "some of his most senior advisors" as well as that of scientists "all over this country".
Musk took to Twitter to insist he had done all he could to convince Trump to remain in the accord.
"At such a critical juncture in the worldwide fight against the worst impacts of the climate crisis, global leaders should be refusing to enter into trade negotiations with the USA as a proportionate response to this supremely reckless act of climate vandalism".
Shortly after the news broke Wednesday, the United Nations official account tweeted a note from U.N. Secretary General Antonio Guterres: "Climate change is undeniable".
Trump is getting conflicting advice from various quarters of the administration.
The Atlantic reported a year ago that a USA departure would likely result in less-transparent mechanisms for actually enforcing the Paris accord - because Chinese "faulty and unreliable energy statistics" could play a prominent role.
I will be announcing my decision on Paris Accord, Thursday at 3:00 P.M. The White House Rose Garden.
World leaders, who had hoped to put out a statement of consensus on the Paris Agreement, expressed their frustration, with German Chancellor Angela Merkel declaring: "We have a situation where six, or if you also include the European Union seven, are against one". Emissions were 12% lower as of 2015, as per the US Energy Information Administration.
University of Oklahoma meteorology professor Jason Furtado said blowing past the 2-degree mark would be a potential "tipping point" that would lead to "a new and irreversible state in the climate system". The US is taking actions to affect in a positive way.
Former Vice President Al Gore called Trump's decision "a reckless and indefensible action" and said the move "undermines America's standing in the world". "We have got the talent and the will to make this possible in all sectors".
On Tuesday, Modi said in Berlin that it would be a "crime" to spoil the environment for future generations as the world awaits a decision on US climate policy.
"When you disagree with someone, you try to convince that person". "We believe that it will be important for the U.S. not to leave the Paris agreement".
The U.S.is the world's second-largest emitter of carbon, following only China.
The Solar Energy Industries Association's (SEIA) vice president of communications Dan Whitten said: "We supported the Paris agreement when it was signed and believe the United States should stay engaged".
Under Obama, Washington had pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 26-28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025. PepsiCo CEO Indra Nooyi has said combating climate change is "absolutely critical" to the world's future, and Blackstone's Stephen Schwarzman funds scholarships to fight it, but former GE head Jack Welch believes former president Barack Obama's focus on combating climate change was "radical behavior" and holding back the USA economy. "Our clean energy industry is growing and employing millions of Americans in good-paying jobs in both red and blue states as it powers more of our businesses and communities. There is a reason the rest of the industrialized world is rushing to capture what will be the largest market opportunity of the 21st century".